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"Is there a village we could stop at?"

What makes a medieval village is slightly different from what makes a village in your typical fantasy roleplaying game. Historically, a medieval village was more like a commune than a community. Everyone was working for the good of everyone else, and only together could they survive the winter. The homes would often be spread out around the fields which everyone had a hand in working. 

In a fantasy setting, winter is only one threat. There are also ogres, dragons, evil priests, and witches, just to name a few. This means that fantasy villages need more protection. Walls are not possible for most. The cost and time to create them would never be at hand. Instead, they tend to take advantage of natural protections. Cliffsides, dead end valleys, islands, plateaus, and the like offer enough protection that the menfolk can mount a good enough defense if needed. A village might also be reliant upon a powerful entity to protect them such as a powerful wizard, priest, or even one special hero. Or perhaps a bargain has been struck with a nearby monster like a dragon or a giant. In exchange for free sheep, they protect the village. Just the rumor of such a thing could be enough to make raiders think twice.

A village can be anywhere from 10 to 100 households. Everyone knows everyone else's business and everyone knows who is in charge. In most cases, the wealthiest person is also the leader of the village, even if they don't have a title like mayor or burgomaster. The innkeeper, if there is one, often holds this position. Other people who typically take the leadership position are the town priest, a magistrate (someone appointed by the lord who owns the land), or even just the most physically powerful man.

Villages along travel routes will be used to strangers and may even be dependent on them for income. Those who live in villages off the beaten path, however, will be suspicious of strangers and might send them on their way.